The Supreme Spiritual Authority of Sikhism
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is a holy book of Revelation and the Supreme Spiritual Authority of the Sikhs, it conveys Universal Message of God through his Messengers on earth, available to mankind intended for everybody everywhere. It is the only Religious Scripture in the world that contains Ideology of the Saints of other religions, castes and creeds (Believers of one God) included Hindu and Muslim Saints, Sufi Poets and other God-intoxicated Souls. Obviously the idea of the “Fifth Nanak” Guru Arjan Dev ji was to affirm the fundamental unity of all religions.
Gurbani – The Hymns and Teachings uttered by the Sikh Gurus and other Divine Souls is known as ‘Gurbani’ within the Guru Granth Sahib.
Gurdwara – Means “Door way to Guru” or a Place of Worship with the presence of the Guru. The Guru is not a person but a Holy Book of Sikh Scripture known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. No Sikh Ceremony is regarded as complete unless it is performed in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
The Beginning of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Ik Onkar ( ੴ ) The Holy Symbol of Sikhism and the ‘Goal Seek’ appears in the beginning and the first word of Sri Guru Granth Sahib which confirms the Absolute Power of One God.
Mool Mantar – means the “Main Chant” is proved to be the Global concept of Supreme Power, describes the Core Theme of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
The holy word (ੴ) Ik Onkar to Gur Prasad is called the Mool Mantar and rest of the composition is called the Japji Sahib consists of 38 Pauris or Stanzas. Japji Sahib is the first Bani/Hymns uttered by Guru Nanak Dev ji upon his Enlightenment at the age of 30. This is one of the Morning Prayers of the Sikhs.
Guruship to Sri Guru Granth Sahib
The tree (Sikhism) whose seed was planted by Guru Nanak Dev ji, came up fruition on 20th October 1708 when “Tenth Nanak” Guru Gobind Singh ji placed Granth Sahib in the Palki (Canopy Bed) in most respectful spiritual manner and solemnly bowed to it and appointed Sri Guru Granth Sahib as his Successor.
Before passing away Guru Gobind Singh ji decreed that the Sikhs are to regard Sri Guru Granth Sahib as Sovereign, Eternal and Living Guru of Sikhs. He gave his last and enduring Message of his Mission to the Assembly of the Khalsa and greeted Waheguru ji ka Khalsa Waheguru ji ki Fateh and commanded: Let all bow before my Successor Guru Granth Sahib and proclaimed “O beloved Khalsa, let him who desireth to behold me, behold the Guru Granth. Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of Guru and let him who desires to meet me search me in the Hymns (Actual words and verses uttered by the Sikh Gurus within Guru Granth Sahib.)
Composition of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib contains 1430 Angs / Pages compiled the Hymns of 36 Saint Mystics which include (Six) Sikh Gurus, (Fifteen) Bhagats / Saints, (Eleven) Bhatts (Divine Poets) and (Four) Gursikhs.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is written in Gurmukhi Script available in various languages including Western Punjabi, Brij Bhasha, Khariboli, Sanskrit, Sindhi and Persian. It is the only Religious Scripture in the world which also contains the teachings of ‘Saints Mystics’ of other Faiths.
Six Sikh Gurus: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Guru Nanak Dev ji, Guru Angad Dev ji, Guru Amar Das ji, Guru Ram Das ji, Guru Arjan Dev ji and Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib ji.
Fifteen Bhagats/Saints: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Bhagat Kabir ji, Bhagat Farid Ji , Bhagat Namdev ji, Bhagat Ravidas ji, Bhagat Beni ji, Bhagat Trilochan ji, Bhagat Jaidev ji, Surdas ji, Bhagat Parmanand ji, Bhagat Ramanand ji, Bhagat Sadhana ji, Bhagat Dhanna ji, Bhagat Pipa ji, Bhagat Sain ji, Bhagat Bhikan ji.
Eleven Bhatts (Divine Poets): whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Bhatt Kalshar ji, Bhatt Balh ji, Bhatt Bhalh ji, Bhatt Bhika ji , Bhatt Gayand ji, Bhatt Harbans ji, Bhatt Jalap ji, Bhatt Kirat ji, Bhatt Mathura ji, Bhatt Nalh ji and Bhatt Salh ji.
Four Gursikhs: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib: Baba Sunder ji, Bhai Mardana ji, Satta ji and Balwand ji.
The Guru Granth Sahib contains 5877 Hymns or Shabads / Sloks (of these in total.)
• 974 Hymns are written by the first Guru. Guru Nanak Dev ji
• 62 Hymns are written by the Second Guru Guru Angad Dev ji
• 907 Hymns are written by the Third Guru Guru Amar Das ji
• 679 Hymns are written by the Fourth Guru Guru Ram Das ji
• 2218 Hymns are written by the Fifth Guru Guru Arjan Dev ji
• 115 Hymns are written by the Ninth Guru Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib ji
• 541 Hymns are written by the Bhagat Kabir ji
• 381 Hymns are written by the others Bhagats/Saints, Bhatts/Divine Poets and Gursikhs.
Raags/ Ragas in Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Most of the Hymns of the Holy Scripture Sri Guru Granth Sahib is composed in and divided by 60 Raags/Ragas under which 31 Raags / Ragas were in existence and rest of the Raags / Ragas were self-composed by the Saints Mystics
Raag/Raga means the Base of Melody used in Indian Classical Music to ignite soulfully in various moods.
Following are the 60 Raags/Ragas in order of appearance with Angs/Page Numbers :-
- Raag Asa – Ang/Page No. 08
- Raag Gujri – Ang/Page No. 10
- Raag Gauri Deepaki – Ang/Page No.12
- Raag Dhanasri – Ang/Page No. 13
- Raag Gauri Poorabi – Ang./Page No.13
- Raag Sri – Ang./Page No.14
- Raag Majh – Ang./Page No. 94
- Raag Gauri Guarairee – Ang/Page No. 151
- Raag Gauri – Ang.Page No. 151
- Raag Gauri Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 152.
- Raag Gauri Chaitee – Ang/Page No. 154
- Raag Gauri Bairagan – Ang/Page No.156
- Raag Gauri Poorabi Deepaki – Ang./Page No. 157
- Raag Gauri Majh – Ang./Page No. 172
- Raag Gauri Malva – Ang./Page No. 214
- Raag Gauri Mala- Ang./Page No. 214
- Raag Gauri Sorath- Ang./Page No.330
- Raag Asa Kafi – Ang./Page No. 365
- Raag Asavari – Ang./Page No. 369
- Raag Asa Asavari – Ang.Page No. 409
- Raag Devgandhari – Ang./Page No.527
- Raag Bihagra- Ang./Page No. 537
- Raag Vadhans- Ang.Page No. 557
- Raag Vadhans Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 580.
- Raag Sorath – Ang./Page No. 595
- Raag Jaitsri – Ang./Page No. 696
- Raag Todi – Ang./Page No. 711
- Raag Bairarri – Ang./Page No.719
- Raag Tilang- Ang./Page No. 721
- Raag Tilang Kafi – Ang./Page No. 726
- Raag Suhee – Ang./Page No. 728
- Raag Suhee Kafi-Ang./Page No. 751
- Raag Suhee Lalit- Ang./Page No. 793
- Raag Bilaval –Ang./Page No. 795
- Raag Bilaval Dakhani – Ang.Page No. 843
- Raag Gound – Ang./Page No. 859
- Raag Bilaval Gound- Ang./Page No. 874
- Raag Ramkali- Ang./Page No.876
- Raag Ramkali Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 907
- Raag Nut Narayan- Ang./Page No. 975
- Raag Nut – Ang./Page No. 975
- Raag Mali Gaura-Ang./Page No.984
- Raag Mari- Ang./Page No. 989
- Raag Maru Kafi Ang./Page No.1014
- Raag Maru Dakhani Ang./Page No.1033
- Raag Tukhari Ang/.Page No. 1107
- Raag Kedara Ang./Page No. 1118
- Raag Bhairo Ang./Page No.1125
- Raag Basant Ang./Page No. 1168
- Raag Basant Hindol Ang./Page No. 1170
- Raag Sarang Ang./Page No. 1197
- Raag Malar Ang./page No. 1254
- Raag Kanra Ang./Page No.1294
- Raag Kaliyan Ang./Page No. 1319
- Raag Kaliyan Bhopali Ang./Page No. 1321
- Raag Parbhati Bibhas Ang./Page No. 1327
- Raag Parbhati Ang./Page No. 1327
- Raag Parbhati Dakhani Ang./page No. 1344
- Raag Bibhas Parbhati Ang./page No.1347
- Raag Jaijavanti Ang./Page No. 1352
There are total 60 Raags / Ragas within Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Each Raag expresses particular mood for the Hymn, adding a deeper dimension to find the strength and motivate Reciters and Listeners to be inspired for their Spiritual Aim.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib was first compiled by the “Fifth Nanak” Guru Arjan Dev ji in 1604 in the city of Amritsar. He included the hymns of Hindu and Muslim Saints, Sufi Poets and other God-intoxicated Souls. Obviously, the idea of Guru Arjan Dev ji to affirm the Fundamental Unity of all Religions.
The Second and the last version was the Handi Work of the Guru Gobind Singh ji and it was finalized at Damdama Sahib in the year 1705. He added the Hymns of his father Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, the Nineth Guru
Indeed, the uniqueness of Sri Guru Granth Sahib in this respect is all the more astonishing when he think of the Obscurantism, Factionalism and Fanaticism of the period in which it was composed.