Guru Granth Sahib

The Supreme Spiritual Authority of Sikhism

Sri Guru Granth Sahib is a holy book of Revelation and the Supreme Spiritual Authority of the Sikhs, it conveys Universal Message of God through his Messengers on earth, available to mankind intended for everybody everywhere. It is the only Religious Scripture in the world that contains Ideology of the Saints of other religions, castes and creeds (Believers of one God) included Hindu and Muslim Saints, Sufi Poets and other God-intoxicated Souls. Obviously the idea of the “Fifth Nanak” Guru Arjan Dev ji was to affirm the fundamental unity of all religions.

Gurbani – The Hymns and Teachings uttered by the Sikh Gurus and other Divine Souls is known as ‘Gurbani’ within the Guru Granth Sahib.

Gurdwara – Means “Door way to Guru” or a Place of Worship with the presence of the Guru. The Guru is not a person but a Holy Book of Sikh Scripture known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. No Sikh Ceremony is regarded as complete unless it is performed in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

The Beginning of Sri Guru Granth Sahib

Ik Onkar ( ੴ ) The Holy Symbol of Sikhism and the ‘Goal Seek’ appears in the beginning and the first word of Sri Guru Granth Sahib which confirms the Absolute Power of One God.

Mool Mantar – means the “Main Chant” is proved to be the Global concept of Supreme Power, describes the Core Theme of Sri Guru Granth Sahib

The holy word (ੴ) Ik Onkar to Gur Prasad is called the Mool Mantar and rest of the composition is called the Japji Sahib consists of 38 Pauris or Stanzas. Japji Sahib is the first Bani/Hymns uttered by Guru Nanak Dev ji upon his Enlightenment at the age of 30. This is one of the Morning Prayers of the Sikhs.

Guruship to Sri Guru Granth Sahib

The tree (Sikhism) whose seed was planted by Guru Nanak Dev ji, came up fruition on 20th October 1708 when “Tenth Nanak” Guru Gobind Singh ji placed Granth Sahib in the Palki (Canopy Bed) in most respectful spiritual manner and solemnly bowed to it and appointed Sri Guru Granth Sahib as his Successor.

Before passing away Guru Gobind Singh ji decreed that the Sikhs are to regard Sri Guru Granth Sahib as Sovereign, Eternal and Living Guru of Sikhs. He gave his last and enduring Message of his Mission to the Assembly of the Khalsa and greeted Waheguru ji ka Khalsa Waheguru ji ki Fateh and commanded: Let all bow before my Successor Guru Granth Sahib and proclaimed “O beloved Khalsa, let him who desireth to behold me, behold the Guru Granth. Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of Guru and let him who desires to meet me search me in the Hymns (Actual words and verses uttered by the Sikh Gurus within Guru Granth Sahib.)

Composition of Sri Guru Granth Sahib

Sri Guru Granth Sahib contains 1430 Angs / Pages compiled the Hymns of 36 Saint Mystics which include (Six) Sikh Gurus, (Fifteen) Bhagats / Saints, (Eleven) Bhatts (Divine Poets) and (Four) Gursikhs.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib is written in Gurmukhi Script available in various languages including Western Punjabi, Brij Bhasha, Khariboli, Sanskrit, Sindhi and Persian. It is the only Religious Scripture in the world which also contains the teachings of ‘Saints Mystics’ of other Faiths.

Six Sikh Gurus: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Guru Nanak Dev ji, Guru Angad Dev ji, Guru Amar Das ji, Guru Ram Das ji, Guru Arjan Dev ji and Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib ji.

Fifteen Bhagats/Saints: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Bhagat Kabir ji, Bhagat Farid Ji , Bhagat Namdev ji, Bhagat Ravidas ji, Bhagat Beni ji, Bhagat Trilochan ji, Bhagat Jaidev ji, Surdas ji, Bhagat Parmanand ji, Bhagat Ramanand ji, Bhagat Sadhana ji, Bhagat Dhanna ji, Bhagat Pipa ji, Bhagat Sain ji, Bhagat Bhikan ji.

Eleven Bhatts (Divine Poets): whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Bhatt Kalshar ji, Bhatt Balh ji, Bhatt Bhalh ji, Bhatt Bhika ji , Bhatt Gayand ji, Bhatt Harbans ji, Bhatt Jalap ji, Bhatt Kirat ji, Bhatt Mathura ji, Bhatt Nalh ji and Bhatt Salh ji.

Four Gursikhs: whose hymns are present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib: Baba Sunder ji, Bhai Mardana ji, Satta ji and Balwand ji.

The Guru Granth Sahib contains 5877 Hymns or Shabads / Sloks (of these in total.)

974 Hymns are written by the first Guru. Guru Nanak Dev ji
62 Hymns are written by the Second Guru Guru Angad Dev ji
907 Hymns are written by the Third Guru Guru Amar Das ji
679 Hymns are written by the Fourth Guru Guru Ram Das ji
2218 Hymns are written by the Fifth Guru Guru Arjan Dev ji
115 Hymns are written by the Ninth Guru Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib ji
541 Hymns are written by the Bhagat Kabir ji
381 Hymns are written by the others Bhagats/Saints, Bhatts/Divine Poets and Gursikhs.

Raags/ Ragas in Sri Guru Granth Sahib

Most of the Hymns of the Holy Scripture Sri Guru Granth Sahib is composed in and divided by 60 Raags/Ragas under which 31 Raags / Ragas were in existence and rest of the Raags / Ragas were self-composed by the Saints Mystics

Raag/Raga means the Base of Melody used in Indian Classical Music to ignite soulfully in various moods.
Following are the 60 Raags/Ragas in order of appearance with Angs/Page Numbers :-

  1. Raag Asa – Ang/Page No. 08
  2. Raag Gujri – Ang/Page No. 10
  3. Raag Gauri Deepaki – Ang/Page No.12
  4. Raag Dhanasri – Ang/Page No. 13
  5. Raag Gauri Poorabi – Ang./Page No.13
  6. Raag Sri – Ang./Page No.14
  7. Raag Majh – Ang./Page No. 94
  8. Raag Gauri Guarairee – Ang/Page No. 151
  9. Raag Gauri – Ang.Page No. 151
  10. Raag Gauri Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 152.
  11. Raag Gauri Chaitee – Ang/Page No. 154
  12. Raag Gauri Bairagan – Ang/Page No.156
  13. Raag Gauri Poorabi Deepaki – Ang./Page No. 157
  14. Raag Gauri Majh – Ang./Page No. 172
  15. Raag Gauri Malva – Ang./Page No. 214
  16. Raag Gauri Mala- Ang./Page No. 214
  17. Raag Gauri Sorath- Ang./Page No.330
  18. Raag Asa Kafi – Ang./Page No. 365
  19. Raag Asavari – Ang./Page No. 369
  20. Raag Asa Asavari – Ang.Page No. 409
  21. Raag Devgandhari – Ang./Page No.527
  22. Raag Bihagra- Ang./Page No. 537
  23. Raag Vadhans- Ang.Page No. 557
  24. Raag Vadhans Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 580.
  25. Raag Sorath – Ang./Page No. 595
  26. Raag Jaitsri – Ang./Page No. 696
  27. Raag Todi – Ang./Page No. 711
  28. Raag Bairarri – Ang./Page No.719
  29. Raag Tilang- Ang./Page No. 721
  30. Raag Tilang Kafi – Ang./Page No. 726
  31. Raag Suhee – Ang./Page No. 728
  32. Raag Suhee Kafi-Ang./Page No. 751
  33. Raag Suhee Lalit- Ang./Page No. 793
  34. Raag Bilaval –Ang./Page No. 795
  35. Raag Bilaval Dakhani – Ang.Page No. 843
  36. Raag Gound – Ang./Page No. 859
  37. Raag Bilaval Gound- Ang./Page No. 874
  38. Raag Ramkali- Ang./Page No.876
  39. Raag Ramkali Dakhani – Ang./Page No. 907
  40. Raag Nut Narayan- Ang./Page No. 975
  41. Raag Nut – Ang./Page No. 975
  42. Raag Mali Gaura-Ang./Page No.984
  43. Raag Mari- Ang./Page No. 989
  44. Raag Maru Kafi Ang./Page No.1014
  45. Raag Maru Dakhani Ang./Page No.1033
  46. Raag Tukhari Ang/.Page No. 1107
  47. Raag Kedara Ang./Page No. 1118
  48. Raag Bhairo Ang./Page No.1125
  49. Raag Basant Ang./Page No. 1168
  50. Raag Basant Hindol Ang./Page No. 1170
  51. Raag Sarang Ang./Page No. 1197
  52. Raag Malar Ang./page No. 1254
  53. Raag Kanra Ang./Page No.1294
  54. Raag Kaliyan Ang./Page No. 1319
  55. Raag Kaliyan Bhopali Ang./Page No. 1321
  56. Raag Parbhati Bibhas Ang./Page No. 1327
  57. Raag Parbhati Ang./Page No. 1327
  58. Raag Parbhati Dakhani Ang./page No. 1344
  59. Raag Bibhas Parbhati Ang./page No.1347
  60. Raag Jaijavanti Ang./Page No. 1352

There are total 60 Raags / Ragas within Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Each Raag expresses particular mood for the Hymn, adding a deeper dimension to find the strength and motivate Reciters and Listeners to be inspired for their Spiritual Aim.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib was first compiled by the “Fifth Nanak” Guru Arjan Dev ji in 1604 in the city of Amritsar. He included the hymns of Hindu and Muslim Saints, Sufi Poets and other God-intoxicated Souls. Obviously, the idea of Guru Arjan Dev ji to affirm the Fundamental Unity of all Religions.

The Second and the last version was the Handi Work of the Guru Gobind Singh ji and it was finalized at Damdama Sahib in the year 1705. He added the Hymns of his father Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, the Nineth Guru

Indeed, the uniqueness of Sri Guru Granth Sahib in this respect is all the more astonishing when he think of the Obscurantism, Factionalism and Fanaticism of the period in which it was composed.